The constitution of India ensures the "right to health" for every citizen. It is the responsibility of the state governments to provide health care services to citizens. The funding for healthcare in India is 3% of GDP and is continuously decreasing since (3.75% in 2013). Government spending currently accounts for 1% of GDP, and the Indian government aims to increase it to 2.5% by 2025.
The infant mortality rate was reduced from 88/1,000 in 1990 to 32/1,000 in 2020. The maternal mortality rate was reduced from 556/100,000 to 113/100,000 during 2016-18.
DESCRIPTION OF HEALTHCARE SYSTEM
India has a mixed healthcare delivery mechanism. Approximately 70% of outpatient and 58% of inpatient services are provided in the private sector. Government healthcare centers account for 30% of outpatients and 42% of inpatient services.
HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE
In the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), the government clearly stated that it was not satisfied with the coverage in India. Nealy 41% of households mentioned that at least one household member was covered with health insurance or financing schemes.
The distribution of the coverage of insured people was
The government launched Ayushman Bharat - Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana in 2018, which provides cashless secondary and tertiary care for the low-income population. This scheme aims to cover nearly 40% of the population and provides an insurance amount of Rs.500,000 (~$6250) per year. Further, Ayushman Bharat was aimed at reducing out-of-pocket spending.
The state contributes 40% of the funds for public health insurance, and the federal government contributes 60%.
CGHS cover the costs of current and retired central government employees and their dependents.
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTOR
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare at the federal level is responsible for the policy decisions but was not involved in delivering the majority of services. It is responsible for providing national health programs.
In 2014, the government launched the federal Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy, to promote alternative medicinal practices in India.
The State departments of health and family welfare are involved in the delivery of services. The responsibilities of the state unit are
managing the workforce
collecting health information
supervising the healthcare facilities and services
There is also a significant variation in the delivery of services between the states.
Nearly 50% of patients seek care in the public sector whenever the patient becomes sick, and almost 48% of people seek care in private centers. Patients visit governme