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Indonesia Healthcare System | Healthcare System | iPharmaCenter


Indonesia has highest population after China, India, and USA, with a population of over 270 million people. The country's healthcare system has significantly developed in the past few decades, with efforts to improve healthcare access and quality across the archipelago. The government is spending 3% of its GDP on health care, less than other countries.

The life expectancy was 63 years in 1990 and increased to 71 years in 2012. Infant mortality was reduced from 41 deaths per 1,000 live births to 26 deaths in 2012. However, the improvements in maternal mortality and infectious diseases were slower.


Indonesia's healthcare system is divided into two main sectors: the public and the private sector.

The Ministry of Health manages the public sector and includes government-run hospitals, community health centers (Puskesmas), and public health programs. Public healthcare is decentralized and is managed at three different levels, central,

provincial and district government responsibilities.

  • The central Ministry of Health is responsible for managing tertiary and specialty hospitals, setting standards and regulations, and ensuring the availability of financial and human resources.

  • Provincial governments are responsible for maintaining provincial hospitals, providing district-level services, and managing cross-district health issues.

  • District governments maintain district hospitals, community health centers, and sub-district facilities.

The private sector includes private hospitals, clinics, and individual practitioners.

The public sector healthcare providers are divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary healthcare is delivered through community health centers (Puskesmas), which provide essential health services such as vaccinations, antenatal care, family planning, and health education. Secondary healthcare is provided by district hospitals, while referral hospitals provide tertiary care.

Indonesia is aiming to achieve universal health care. In 2014, Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial Kesehatan, a social security agency, was launched to provide universal health care. The universal healthcare system was called the Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional. The program includes salaried individuals, non-receiving wage workers and nonworkers, and health insurance contribution assistance beneficiaries.


There are both private and public providers in Indonesia. General hospitals are involved in providing health services across all therapy areas and diseases, whereas specialty hospitals are engaged in providing services to a particular condition. The specialty hospitals are classified as Class A, B, C, and D based on the number of inpatient beds.

Delivery of health care services:

The primary point of contact between the patient and healthcare services is the primary care facilities, puskesmas, and their networks. The referrals are required for the patient to attend the hospital or specialty clinic, except in emergencies. Puskesmas are involved in curative and public health services, including health promotion, prevention of infectious diseases, ambulatory care, maternal and child health, family planning, and community nutrition.

Patients who attend the hospitals without referrals pay out-of-pocket.

The healthcare system in Indonesia is organized into three tiers