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Prostate cancer | Causes | Symptoms | Treatment | iPharmaCenter


The prostate is the gland in the lower abdomen, between the base of the penis and the rectum. It is a part of the male reproductive system. The prostate is responsible for producing seminal fluid (semen), which mixes with sperm produced by the testes.


There are no particular reasons for the development of prostate cancer.

Risk factors:

  • Age: Prostate cancer is diagnosed more in older individuals (of age greater than 65 years and above).

  • Family history: Individuals with a family history of cancer are at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer.

  • Genetic factors: A man with a genetic abnormality is at higher risk of developing prostate cancer

  • Race: Black males are more likely to develop prostate cancer than white males. Black males are likely to die twice compared to white males.

  • Diet and lifestyle: Eating food with higher fat might increase the risk of prostate cancer. Exercise will reduce the risk of dying because of prostate cancer.

Prostate size increases with age:

The prostate gland size increases with age, called benign prostatic hyperplasia, which is not cancerous. An enlarged prostate can cause the same symptoms as that prostate cancer.


  • Early-stage prostate cancer: Cancer has not spread beyond the prostate and grows slowly.

  • Advanced-stage prostate cancer: Cancer has spread beyond the prostate and can metastasize to the bones, lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and other organs.

Regional metastatic prostate cancer does not spread beyond the prostate and nearby lymph nodes. In distant metastatic breast cancer, cancer spreads beyond the prostate and regional lymph nodes.


Early stage-prostate cancer grows slowly and has no significant symptoms. Advanced cancer can show signs. Some of the symptoms of prostate cancer are:

  • Frequent urination

  • Trouble while urinating

  • Blood in urine

  • Pain in pelvis

  • Weight loss

  • Bone, hip, or back pain

The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer are similar, and it is difficult to differentiate between the indications based on symptoms. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a much more common indication than prostate cancer.


  • Digital rectal exam: The doctor will physically examine the size and texture of the prostate. An irregular or hardened prostate can be a sign of cancer.

  • Prostate-specific antig