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Updated: Jan 7, 2022

Breast cancer is a disease where breast cells grow without control. Cancer can originate at different body parts.

The breast contains three different parts: lobules, ducts, and connective tissue.

  • Lobules are involved in the production of milk

  • Ducts carry milk to nipples

  • Connective tissues, which is composed of fibrous and fatty tissue, fill and keeps everything together

Metastatic breast cancer is breast cancer when it spreads to other parts of the body.

Symptoms of breast cancer

Some of the breast cancer symptoms are the formation of lumps in the breast or armpit, dimpling on the breast, irritation of the breast, pain in the breast, redness near nipples, pain at nipples, variation in the shape of the breast.

Risk factors of breast cancer

  • Age: People who are more than 50 years of age are at higher risk of breast cancer

  • Mutations: Mutations in genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2 causes breast cancer

  • Reproductive history: Starting early menstrual periods and menopause after 55 years of age increase the risk of breast cancer

  • Family history: Women with a mother, sister, or daughter who had breast cancer are at higher risk of developing breast cancer

  • Radiation therapy: Women who are exposed to radiation therapy before the age of 30 years are at higher risk of developing cancer

  • Lifestyle changes: Physically active women are at lesser risk of developing breast cancer

  • Alcohol: Women who drink less alcohol is at lesser risk of developing breast cancer


  • Surgery: A surgery to remove the cancerous tissue

  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapeutics agents are given as pills or injected into the bloodstream

  • Radiation therapy: Use of X-rays and other rays to kill the cancer cells

  • Hormonal therapy: Stops the hormones that are required for the cells to grow

Different specialized products are approved for treating breast cancer.

Abemaciclib (Verzenio)

  • Indicated for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) and HER2 negative (HER2-) and is advanced breast cancer

  • Used in combination with fulvestrant

  • Indicated along with aromatase inhibitor if it is given as a first-line option

Alprelisib (Piqray)

  • HER negative breast cancer with PIK3CA gene


  • Early HR+ positive breast cancer and in advanced or metastatic stages

Atezolizumab (Tecentriq)

  • Indicated for triple-negative breast cancer

  • The drug is indica