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Parkinson's disease


Introduction

It is neurodegenerative disease. The dopamine levels within the brain reduces which leads to the impairment of motor function. The reason behind the cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknow, though genetic and environmental factors are expected to be the reason behind Parkinson’s disease.


Symptoms

· Involuntary movements

· Slow movement

· Stiff and inflexible muscles

· Depression

· Anxiety

· Loss of memory

· Insomnia


Treatment

· By using medicines

· Brain surgery


Medications used in PD

Carbidopa-Levodopa therapy: Tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity is caused because of the less dopamine levels in the body. This can be treated by administrating the carbidopa and levodopa into the body.

  • Carbidopa

  • Levodopa

Dopamine agonists: These are not as effective as carbidopa and levodopa. However they are lesser side effects

  • Pramipexole

  • Ropinirole

  • Rotigotine

  • Apomorphine

  • Bromocriptine

  • Cabergoline

  • Pergolide

MAO-B inhibitors: MAO-B enzyme is involved in the degradation of dopamine in the brain. The role of the inhibitor is to block the enzyme, so that the dopamine levels in the brain get maintained.

  • Selegiline

  • Rasagiline

  • Safinamide

COMT inhibitors: COMT is a inhibitor involved in the degradation of neurotransmitters in the brain. By giving in combination with carbidopa-levodopa, COMT inhibitors will slow down the degradation of dopamine in the brain

  • Entacapone

  • Tolcapone

  • Opicapone

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