International price referencing
UK is the most widely referenced country. Even though the pharmaceutical sales constitute to 3% of the global market, but it has wide impact on the total pharmaceutical market.
Until 2011, in Germany it is free pricing. However Germany also started referencing the prices in the other countries to determine the prices.
In France, Italy and Spain, there are price negotiations between the companies and the government.
In Netherlands, for out patients government will set maximum wholesale prices
Generics There is pricing cap in France.
In Italy and Spain, there is the concept of internal reference pricing. Prescription of non-prescription drugs was not regulated.
Degree of health outcomes is important in most of the countries.
Cost effectiveness and budget impact are important in Italy, Spain and Netherlands.
In Canada, Patented Medicine Prices Review Board will evaluate and regulate ex-factory price of patented products.
International Reference Pricing Considerations
France: Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdon
Canada: France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdon, USA,
Germany: Not defined
Italy: Not defined
Netherlands: Belgium, France, Germany and United Kingdom
Spain: 22 countries (most of the EU nations)